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- ItemDevelopment of the Industrial IoT Competences in the Areas of Organization, Process, and Interaction Based on the Learning Factory Concept(2017) Gronau, Norbert; Ullrich, André; Teichmann, Malte
- ItemIntentional Forgetting in Organizations: The Importance of Eliminating Retrieval Cues for Implementing New Routines(2018) Kluge, Annette; Gronau, Norbert
- ItemPopularity cues in online media: Theoretical and methodological perspectives in political communication research(2018) Porten-Cheé, Pablo; Jost, Pablo; Eilders, Christiane; Maurer, Marcus; Haßler, Jörg
- ItemInclusive Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the New Digital Era(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Allen, Jonathan P.The intensive digitization of society has coincided with rising economic inequality across the developed economies. Missing from the standard list of policy responses to rising inequality is the role of innovation and entrepreneurship. This paper argues that new digital business models, that capture value differently and share the wealth created more broadly, will be a necessary part of addressing technology-based inequality. This in turn will require more support for inclusive innovation and entrepreneurship, which will allow novel, alternative value models to emerge, and be given a chance to compete and succeed. Using a three-part model of the main modes of performance in the digital era - datafication, algorithms, and platforms - the paper will discuss skills and intervention that might help in making digital innovation and entrepreneurship more inclusive.
- ItemSkill Development on the Shop Floor - Heading to a Digital Divide?(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Warnhoff, Kathleen; De Paiva Lareiro, PatriciaIn recent years, there has been a huge debate on how modern sensor technology and the increasing connectivity of production systems have changed industrial production processes and working conditions. This article contributes to the discussion on the effects of digitalization on skill development under different working conditions with the following question: How has learning in the work-process changed with the introduction of data-based technologies? To examine the interaction between digital assistance systems and organizational parameters on informal learning, we analyzed the implementation of digital assistant systems in two different groups: low-skilled assembly workers and high-skilled shop floor managers. Our findings suggest that a lack of autonomy in workplaces has negative impacts on informal learning and thus skill development. When the design of assistance systems perpetuates preexisting inequalities in the working conditions, their use can contribute to a polarization of qualifications and a digital divide of the workforce.
- ItemInequalities of Professional Learning on Social Media Platforms(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Bergviken Rensfeldt, Annika; Hillman, ThomasProfessional learning on social media is generally framed as unproblematic, but the transition to these platforms marks a change as professionals’ work is conditioned by their logic and economy. In this paper, our focus is how problematic inequalities of teachers’ professional learning around access, participation and resources are produced as their professional exchanges is formed by social media participation. Three aspects of inequality have been examined. First, the performance of teachers’ (un)equal professional opportunities; second, (un)equal access to resources; and third, (un)equal existential opportunities for professional development. We draw on examination of three-years of API data from a large teacher Facebook-group asking, who can participate (gender, location), what voices are heard (status, language), and how does the social media platform condition professional exchange and participation? Our results consider the opportunities and costs for teachers as individuals, professionals and intellectuals. They reveal problematic temporal aspects such as work intensification, and limited professional exchange, partly conditioned by the platform functionality.
- ItemUnexpected Inferences from Sensor Data. A Hidden Privacy Threat in the Internet of Things(Springer International Publishing, 2019) Kröger, Jacob; Strous, Leon; Cerf, Vinton G.A growing number of sensors, embedded in wearables, smart electric meters and other connected devices, is surrounding us and reaching ever deeper into our private lives. While some sensors are commonly regarded as privacy-sensitive and always require user permission to be activated, others are less protected and less worried about. However, experimental research findings indicate that many seemingly innocuous sensors can be exploited to infer highly sensitive information about people in their vicinity. This paper reviews existing evidence from the literature and discusses potential implications for consumer privacy. Specifically, the analysis reveals that certain insufficiently protected sensors in smart devices allow inferences about users’ locations, activities and real identities, as well as about their keyboard and touchscreen inputs. The presented findings call into question the adequacy of current sensor access policies. It is argued that most data captured by smart consumer devices should be classified as highly sensitive by default. An introductory overview of sensors commonly found in these devices is also provided, along with a proposed classification scheme.
- ItemThe Relevance of Students' Digital Media Behaviour and Self-Efficacy for Academic Achievement in View of their Socio-Economic Background(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Pumptow, Marina; Brahm, TaigaResearch suggests a link between students’ social background, e.g. educational background of parents, academic self-efficacy expectations and study behaviour. Often, lower academic achievement is expected of those students’ whose parents are characterized by lower educational background. Although digital media are prevalent in several areas of everyday life, their relevance for academic achievement is not satisfactorily explored. Furthermore, it remains largely unknown in this context whether media usage is related to social background factors. In consequence, it is important to investigate if existing inequalities in higher education are stable, further enhanced or even reduced by means of “digitalisation”. The present study explores the relationships between individual, contextual as well as social background factors, with a special focus on academic and digital media self-efficacy expectations. Data was collected at four German universities in summer 2018 (n = 2039). Currently, data is analysed by means of structural equation models.
- ItemPlatform Labour and the Mobile Underclass: Barriers to Participation in the United States and India(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Newlands, Gemma; Lutz, ChristophOnline crowdwork platforms have been praised as powerful vehicles for economic development, particularly for workers traditionally excluded from the labor market. However, there has been insufficient scrutiny as to the feasibility of crowdwork as an income-source among socio-economically deprived populations. This paper examines device requirements and differential access to digital infrastructure, both of which act as potential barriers to not only basic participation but also to economic success. Given the increasing prevalence of mobile-first and mobile-only populations, research on this topic aids in understanding the crowdwork ecosystem among differing socio-economic sectors. Based on a survey of 606 crowd workers in the United States and India, this paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to explore whether reliance on mobile devices is detrimental for the economic outcomes of crowdwork. The results point to substantial inequalities in device use and received benefits from crowdwork, within each country and between the two contexts.
- ItemBig Data: Inequality by Design?(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Prietl, BiancaThis paper proposes to tackle the problem of digital inequality by introducing digital technologies of knowledge generation and decision-making to a feminist critique of rationality that is informed by discourse theory and intersectional perspectives on gender and gendered relations of inequality. Therefore, it takes a closer look at the epistemological foundations of Big Data as one prominent representation of digital technologies. While Big Data and Big Data-based results and decisions are generally believed to be objective and neutral, numeral cases of algorithmic discrimination have lately begged to differ. This paper argues that algorithmic discrimination is neither random nor accidental; on the contrary, it is - amongst others - the result of the epistemological foundation of Big Data - namely: data fundamentalism, post-explanatory anticipatory pragmatics, and anti-political solutionism. As a consequence, a critical engagement with the concepts and premises that become materialized in the design of digital technologies is needed, if they are not to silently (re)produce social inequalities.
- ItemProfessionals as Online Students: Non-academic Satisfaction Drivers(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Bagher, Mammed; Jeske, DeboraAs student populations become more heterogeneous, it is becoming apparent that the traditional and learner-specific predictors of student satisfaction are not the only important variables that predict students’ experience. Using a two-stage data collection process, we examined predictors in a sample of online MBA students over the course of a two-part survey. Regression analysis suggested that perceived control over one’s schedule at work was a significant predictor of distance learning satisfaction and program satisfaction. This suggested that the MBA students’ ability to maintain a work-life balance (which allows for both work and studies) plays a significant role in shaping student satisfaction. Correlations further suggested the higher the expectations of the students about program provisions and feedback, the lower their subsequent distance learning satisfaction scores. The results bring the importance of pre-enrolment program communication (rather than program efforts) as well as inclusion into focus.
- ItemCitizen Science and the Dissolution of Inequalities in Scientific Knowledge Production(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Wünsche, Hannes; Schimmler, SonjaRecently, a larger public has started to critically discuss scientific knowledge and its role in political decision making. In this discussion, scientific and civic epistemologies are put into connection with each other. Just as post-democratic theory argues in relation to political decisions, the production of scientific knowledge is criticized as a non-inclusive process, too. The Citizen Science movement tries to resolve this deficit by involving citizens into research. In this paper, we introduce agency as an analytical category into the discussion, focussing on how participants are represented in Citizen Science. We highlight the interdependencies between the degree of agency granted to the participants in Citizen Science projects and the degree of their representation in knowledge production.
- ItemFraming Computational Thinking for Computational Literacies in K-12 Education(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Kafai, Yasmin B.; Proctor, Chris; Lui, Debora A.The last decade has seen an increased interest in promoting computing education for all, focused on the idea of “computational thinking.” Currently, three framings for promoting computational thinking in K-12 education have been proposed, emphasizing either (1) skill and competency building, (2) creative expression and participation, or (3) social justice and reflection. While each of these emphases is valuable and needed, their narrow focus can obscure important issues and miss critical transformational opportunities for empowering students as competent, creative, and critical agents. We argue that these computational framings should be seen as literacies, thereby historicizing and situating computer science with respect to broader educational concerns and providing new directions for how schools can help students to actively participate in designing their digital futures.
- ItemThe Right to Work and Finding Work: the Inaccessibility of Private and Public Sector Career Portals(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Otter, Thomas; Schwarz, ThorstenThe right to participation in society for people with disabilities is relatively well established in national and international law and convention (UNCRPD), and increasingly in social norms. These rights include the right to work. The majority of job opportunities today are advertised and applied for almost exclusively online in digital form. In late 2017 we performed both automated testing of career sites against WCAG 2.0 and BITV standards and a multi-day detailed laboratory observation of visually impaired and blind testers applying for jobs across 10 German organisations in the public and private sectors. The tests note significant problems with the accessibility of the career sites, both in terms of standards compliance and practical use testing. This study illustrates the barriers that digital technologies can create for people with disabilities. This paper will highlight and classify these issues, explore their causes, and briefly suggest improvements for software developers, employers and regulators.
- Item“You are to Old (Not) to Learn” - A Critical Reconsideration of “Older Employees”(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Teichmann, Malte; Matthiessen, Julia; Vladova, GerganaTodays working environment faces the major challenges of demographical change and digitalization. Deficit-oriented stereotypes question the ability of older employees to keep pace with these technological innovations. Consequently, the elderly are perceived as less valuable for the company leading to fewer vocational training offers. Facing this dilemma, this contribution aims at uncovering the prevailing stereotypes against older employees and present a new approach of looking at older generations. Focusing existing experienced-based knowledge instead of assumed deficits as a starting point for further didactical work and research, basics of age-appropriate vocational training get pointed out in order to raise target group specific potentials in the context of the challenges of digitalization.
- ItemSignaling Stigma: How Support Technology Induces Bodily Inequalities in Interaction(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Karafillidis, AthanasiosThis paper contends that support technologies and their relevant artifacts recast bodily relations and thereby produce differing bodies in situations. In this vein, it sketches three main forms of physical human-machine relations (substitution, augmentation, support) and then introduces the concept of signaling stigma that allows to observe the situated management of new technological markers of difference. It concludes with suggestions for further research building on this approach to uncover the interactional foundations for what might grow into manifest inequalities - beyond the still important issues of personal data rights and access to technology.
- ItemSurfing in sound: Sonification of hidden web tracking(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2019) Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Kroger, Jacob Leon; Schneiderbauer, Manuel; Hauswirth, ManfredWeb tracking is found on 90% of common websites. It allows online behavioral analysis which can reveal insights to sensitive personal data of an individual. Most users are not aware of the amout of web tracking happening in the background. This paper contributes a sonification-based approach to raise user awareness by conveying information on web tracking through sound while the user is browsing the web. We present a framework for live web tracking analysis, conversion to Open Sound Control events and sonification. The amount of web tracking is disclosed by sound each time data is exchanged with a web tracking host. When a connection to one of the most prevalent tracking companies is established, this is additionally indicated by a voice whispering the company name. Compared to existing approaches on web tracking sonification, we add the capability to monitor any network connection, including all browsers, applications and devices. An initial user study with 12 participants showed empirical support for our main hypothesis: exposure to our sonification significantly raises web tracking awareness.
- ItemMedia Bias Towards African-americans Before and After the Charlottesville Rally(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Leschke, Julia C.; Schwemmer, CarstenAfrican-Americans are still experiencing racial discrimination rooted in structural bias in US American society. Research has shown that this behaviour can be reduced if individuals are made conscious of their bias, but little is known about these mechanisms on a societal level. Envisaging the white-supremacist Charlottesville rally in 2017 as an event that rendered American society conscious of its racism, we scrutinise whether racial bias in the digital media has changed, comparing levels of pre- and post-Charlottesville bias. We fit word embedding models to a broad sample of largely US media and quantify bias by calculating cosine similarities between terms for black or white actors and positive or negative character traits. We find no differences in positive character traits after Charlottesville. However, African-Americans are associated substantially less with negative character traits post-Charlottesville, while white actors are semantically closer to negative traits.
- ItemDigital Platforms and Digital Inequality. An Analysis From Information Ethics Perspective(Weizenbaum Institute, 2019) Levina, OlgaDigital platforms are information technology artifacts that erode established market structures by providing a digital interaction space for producers and consumers. Therefore, it is argued here that digital platforms inherently support digital divide. This potential, if not governed or made visible for the involved actors, can lead and is already leading to undesired societal and ethical consequences. To derive these insights, Information Systems (IS) perspective is enriched with the Information Ethics approach and terminology. This interdisciplinary view allows considering both the technical and the social side of the problem. The analysis of interactions and roles is performed using the four ethical issues identified by Mason as a general taxonomy of ethical concerns in IS context. The identified aspects offer insights on the potentials of digital platforms that fosters digital inequality. Power asymmetries between the digital platform and its users are identified, outlining their potential for manifestation of the digital divide.